Apr 15
(Today's post is a guest post by longtime reader Matty P. If you would like to guest write for us, please check out our guest post guidelines. We look forward to publishing reader posts on future Thursdays.)

I hit him hard against the chest and met resistance. I hit him a second time, harder, directly against his sternum. Adrenaline is speeding my motions. I have to pace myself, find my timing, control my blows. A co-worker joins in my struggle, stabbing at the man's arm. Another person tries to strap him down so he can’t flail at us while we go about our brutal task. I continue to my attack and hear a crack. But I don't relent. I continue hard against his chest. I pause, allowing another co-worker to force something down our victim's throat. We all stand back as we electrocute him.

This goes on in cycles for several minutes. And if we've done everything perfectly, we've saved his life. 

It's called a full arrest. Our patient's heart has stopped or doesn't have the ability to supply the body and brain with the blood they so desperately need. In order to correct the situation we assault the patient's body. It sounds like a back ally beating. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not a gentle process. Chest compressions require forcing the chest wall in a direction opposite of its normal direction of expansion. More often than not, ribs break. If done improperly a portion of the sternum can sever. Or the xiphoid process can detach and puncture an internal organ. More than that, the compressions have to be timed correctly with precise depth while simultaneously allowing for recoil so the heart can not only pump blood, but fill up with blood as well.

Meanwhile, paramedics must start an intravenous line to push medications that affect the heart. This requires an eighteen gauge or larger bore needle to ensure the vein doesn’t collapse. Medications are given that directly affect the body's normal physiology, forcing the heart to act the way we want, constricting blood vessels, and dilating the smooth muscle of the lungs. We intubate by placing a tube down the throat so we can supply oxygen directly to the lungs. With a bag, we provide positive pressure to the lungs to cause them to expand and fill with oxygen. Finally, we use controlled burst of electricity to affect the heart rhythm. Though it can benefit the normal electrical cascade, each shock infarcts muscle, killing a small portion of the heart.

Saving a life that is nearly gone requires vigorous and violent effort. Without an understanding of what is happening our actions seem barbaric and malicious. Such is the importance of context. Without it actions are purposeless. Violence is incomprehensible. Without context CPR seems like an assault. Similarly, without context, a war on terror is interpreted as a military invasion and occupation, or a suicide bombing is construed to be a man wanting to die while causing others to die. There is context to these actions and events that go missing. It’s important to understand and address the motivations and purposes of such actions in order to prevent further violence.
Apr 14

The Army loves football. Two sides face off, taking ground and battling to a violent finish, what's not to like?

I also love football. And today I want to connect it to counter-insurgency.

Most people watch football by "following the ball," meaning they focus on the player holding the football. They ignore, for the most part, the other players on the field. The quarterback takes the ball from the center, then throws it to a receiver down field, and the viewer watches those players the whole time. The camera follows the ball; so does the average viewer.

Why is this? Because the action is the exciting part of the play; its the sexy part. I mean, the player with the ball is the only one who can score. He's also the one who is going to get hit.

But it isn’t the whole story.

Regular viewers hardly ever watch the offensive linemen during a play. Even hardcore fans would struggle to name an offensive linemen. No one chooses linemen for their fantasy leagues. They're the unsung heroes of the gridiron, primarily because fans are too busy watching the ball. Every great run, and every great pass, has an offensive linemen creating the play. Watching the ball means you are missing the offensive lineman, the defense and the creation of the play.

Ok Michael, how does this relate to counter-insurgency?

The Army only watches the ball during counter-insurgencies. The ball in this case is the death of American Soldiers. The event that leads to that death, for example an IED, is only the end result of a long process. An IED ambush requires reconnaissance, logistics, intelligence, bomb-making, local support, information operations and finally, direct action. But both maneuver commanders and intelligence specialists primarily care about the final explosion, not the whole process. The IED explosion is like the touchdown, everything before that is the action away from the ball.

We spend hundreds of millions, if not billions, on countering IEDs at the point of impact. We notice explosions. We care about the so-called “kinetic” events. But those are like following the ball, not following the creation of the play.

Strategically, as a nation, we follow the ball--meaning the death of American Soldiers. That is really the only metric that the American public cares about. It is like tracking touchdowns, but no other statistic on the battlefield.

As a military, we get distracted by the sexy part of the insurgency--the IEDs--and we ignore the complex part of the insurgency--everything else. We have improved (read the Flynn report and the Petraeus counter-insurgency manual) but we have a long way to go.

Apr 12

I was in the middle of a shura in Pashad, when I received an urgent call from my Company Headquarters. Instantly my mission changed from peaceful shura to hurried cordon and search at a suspected insurgent cache. I paused for a moment to figure out my course of action, then excused myself from the shura.

Parked in front of an ANP (Afghan National Police) checkpoint, I quickly told the ANA (Afghan National Army) soldiers--our patrol was loaded with forty ANA in addition to my sixteen men--and ANP leaders we had to go. My men remounted our vehicles; the ANA did the same, just not quite as fast. I was working my personal radio to get more information, head some yelling, and I looked up.

In front of my truck, an ANA soldier aimed a rocket propelled grenade launcher at an ANP soldier about seven feet in front of him. The lever was cocked, and he was ready go.

Uh-oh. (I used different wording at the time.)

As I moved behind my truck, I told everyone to button up inside their vehicles. More ANA and ANP began to square off. The yelling got louder. At this point, my interpreter had no chance to translate my yelling. So I did the only thing I could: I hopped into my vehicle and hoped that both sides would see the insensibility of going Mexican stand-off on each other at less than ten paces (especially silly considering an RPG probably won’t even detonate at ten meters).

As my platoon watched inside our armored boxes, and a surprising number of ANA guys not even realizing what was going on, an ANA First Sergeant arrived. He restored order by slapping the ANA guy holding the RPG, and gesticulating to his men to get in their vehicles. The ANP checkpoint commander took control of his men shortly after that.

Crisis averted.

In hindsight I realize how surreal this event was. It's the equivalent of the LAPD pulling firearms on the National Guard during a riot. And from what I hear, Iraq went through similar types of turf wars. No matter, Afghanistan will have trouble as long as the Army and Police don’t get along. The only real positive note, is that the ANA and ANP leadership eventually got their men under control.

(In defense of the ANA, the Soldier with the RPG thought there were people smuggling lumber through the check point, something that is technically illegal. Konar Province has a huge problem with smuggled goods: semi-precious gems, lumber and ores. Still a weird time to start enforcing the law.)

To succeed in Afghanistan, we need security. The success of both the ANP and the ANA in achieving security will either make or break our efforts in Afghanistan. Unfortunately, I had to watch these two groups--each struggling to come to terms with their role in a future democratic Afghanistan-- point loaded weapons at each other.

Apr 09

(To read the entire "War Memoirs" series, please click here.)

If memoirs are supposed to be true, a snap shot of life in Iraq, Afghanistan or Vietnam, why do so many memoirs feel…not true?

It isn't because the authors lie; it is because they omit. My gut instinct--and this has been born out in my reading--is that Soldiers don't always tell the full truth; war is too ugly, too brutal, to present it fully. The most interesting details are often the most painful, embarrassing or immoral. Some writers would rather focus on leadership or politics, others want to focus on honor and good deeds.

So I developed a litmus test of things that, if authors are being intellectually honest, they will include in their war memoir. What qualifies for the litmus test? Something that is unavoidably common in war but that is left out because it is, again, sordid, embarrassing, illegal or immoral.

What isn't included? Some things seem immoral, but are faithfully mentioned in every war memoir (smoking, an uncomfortable reference to porn, post-deployment drinking, etc.) because they are so common. Some things (atrocities, rape, war crimes) are not universal to every Soldier's experience. Some things are considered embarrassing, like PTSD, but almost every memoir I read ended with a Soldier having trouble adjusting to home. (Clint Van Winkle's Soft Spots is the memoir to read on the subject.) I'm also aware that for each example below I could find a memoir that mentions it. The point is that most don't.

Anyways, without further ado, the list:

1. Masturbating – Unlike past wars, Soldiers and Marines in Iraq and Afghanistan don’t have access to an easy supply of women. (GIs had the French and Italian women in WWI and WWII; Grunts had Vietnamese women) And while Fobbits at Bagram Airfield can always have sex with each other, for the all-male world of the infantry, masturbation is probably their favorite recreational hobby. Yet of the dozen or so memoirs I've read, it's been mentioned twice.

2. Dogs - Dogs are ubiquitous in a war-zone (Tom Ricks has an entire series dedicated to them) and they are thematically powerful--as I wrote here. So they should be side characters in every war memoir.

3. Dogs Dying - Dogs--like people, civilians, and Soldiers--tend to die in war-zones. A lot. Sometimes Soldiers kill them; sometimes they die by accident. Either way, their fate should be mentioned.

4. Animals Dying - Less common, but fascinating. Again, read this post. While dogs tug at the heart strings of every Soldier, cats, horses, and other animals get caught up in the violence as well. (H/T to @Trishlet)

5. Civilians Dying - It happens. It happened a lot on the invasion into Iraq. It happened a lot when the insurgency exploded. An honest memoir will deal with this messy truth about any war.

6. Bad Soldiers - If you're a platoon leader leading 20 or more men, one of your Soldiers sucks. Young Officers seem eager to explain the faults of their bosses, but not their men. This is probably the most difficult thing for an author to include in a war memoir.

7. Fear - Perhaps you weren't afraid. Good for you. But the best passages describe what Soldiers feel, and fear is perhaps the most dominant emotion of war. How could it not be?

8. Outside Plots
- Plot lines that don't have to do with war inform the reader to the larger picture. Jarhead and The Things They Carried did this really well. (H/T to @Brandon Friedman.)

9. Funny Things Happening During Fire Fights - My brother ate oranges after a fire fight. Guys say funny things. War is more comedy than action movie. (H/T to @Schmedlap.) This could apply to humor in General (more to come on this.) Also why I'm eagerly awaiting Kaboom, Orange County Library System.

Of course, someone can follow this list too closely. As I wrote before, there is such a thing as war pornography, an obsession with the muck and dirt and blood. Some prose never gets past it. The solution is a balance, terror and fear, love and beauty, heroism and despair. War tilts the balance, but it is too complicated to be presented simply.

There is another point. You might not want to write about these events as they actually happened. And that's why I wish writers embraced the freedom war novels, and and avoided the problems of war memoirs. If you have any things you'd like to see in war memoirs, please include them below in the comments.

Apr 07

The last time I brought up contractors, I asked hyperbolically, "Are military contractors (nee mercenaries), immoral?" My answer was yes, because of the fraud, waste and abuse endemic to the system.

A "spirited" debate followed with poster Mark over the amenities offered on super FOBs (Forward Operating Bases). I loathe the existence of Green Beans, Burger King, and Salsa Night on bases like Bagram Airfield. He and Gunslinger pointed out that the funds that support these places are not the same that, for example, procure Hescos or build infrastructure. They're right, but I will never like the fact that we support 30,000 troops who conduct zero patrols, and mostly work five days a week.

But as Mark pointed out in the comments--and was reported by a variety of news sources--General McChrystal has decided to drastically limit the accoutrement on these bases. The reason, as the guys at Ink Spots point out, is that logistically Afghanistan can only support so many programs. And unfortunately the patties of Burger King and the espresso of Green Beans have to go.

I think the best quotes come from this BBC piece. "This is a war-zone, not an amusement park," the blog written by Command Sergeant Major Michael T. Hall says. "In order to accommodate the troop increase and get refocused on the mission in hand, we need to cut back on some of the non-essentials." As McChrystal says, "[the extra amenities] served as a distraction to the military mission." The word "distract" perfectly describes the situation.

To help shed some light on the subject, Starbuck over at Wings Over Iraq pointed us towards these two, somewhat older articles. The first by Max Boot--who I don't always agree with--wonders whether the US Army has actually mastered the logistics issue of warfare, but has gone too far. He quotes the old aphorism, "amateurs talk strategy, professionals talk logistics," then lampoons it with modern day examples.

Mountain Runner--a good regular read--agreed and makes a very good point: the worst part of Burger Kings and Salsa Night is that they create a "little America" mindset. This echoes the ideas of The Ugly American, who harped on the lack of American cultural understanding, with our modern issues.

And since military contractors/military acquisitions continue to provide delightful stories of ineptitude, we'll finish today's post with some of the more ridiculous recent news about our favorite people:

- It looks like Secretary Gates finally overhauled the senior mentor's program. This program allowed retired Generals to triple dip in both retirement pay, contracting work, and government consulting.

- And in a follow up to our post from our last contractor link dump, the draw down in Iraq is being mismanaged by contractors. If you want to know why we oppose contracting, it is because they over-charge the government when they can.

- And finally, our favorite villain, KBR. The federal government recently sued KBR over contract fraud for the Iraq war. And since everyone wants a piece of them, some soldiers are suing KBR saying they knowingly allowed US Soldiers to be exposed to carcinogens.

Apr 06

Quick heads up:

Eric C just had two guest posts published this week. The first is over at Unique Blog titled, "Bad News: The Gatekeepers Still Exist." Eric C likes this post, it's an analysis of new media vs. old media.

Eric C also had a guest post published on MaxBlogger. It's kind of conceited, and Eric promises it isn't his fault.

Check them out.

Apr 05

On a hot day in the spring of 2008, my platoon manned a routine traffic control point in Eastern Afghanistan. It was us, a small group of Afghan Border Police, miles of empty countryside, and a trickle of civilian vehicles.

As soon as I got my men into position, I went to the nearest compound to set up an impromptu shura. After a bit of coaxing, I finally got the eldest male to come out of his dwelling. He matched the physical description of a key Taliban sub-commander, and he acted suspicious. He even told me his name--the same name as the Taliban sub-commander. (This may seem odd, but our battalion had already captured three known Taliban throughout the deployment, all because they used their real name. Afghans will lie for hours about what they do, but they always seem to use their real name. More on this interesting phenomena in future posts.)

Part of me was worried: the Taliban sub-commander I was looking for traveled with an entourage of 20-50 armed fighters. Luckily, we had an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) overhead. Linked to our Brigade headquarters, who had direct communication with my battalion headquarters, that in turn was linked to my company command post, who could talk to me on an FM radio, the UAV spotted the Taliban posse heading towards my position.

My commander radioed, “Destined 4-6, be prepared, Brigade says they spotted 100 Taliban moving towards your position. Current location at grid XXX-XXX.”

My platoon jumped into action, thankful that network-centric warfare had provided us the early warning.

What amazing technological network allowed this to happen? A variety of systems with equally convoluted acronyms: I plotted the Taliban position on a map system called the Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade-and-Below, or FBCB2. The FBCB2 links into another system called the Command Post of the Future, or CPoF. In addition to those two networks, every command post uses email, internet chat, and adobe chat. And to watch everything, the US Army has unmanned aerial vehicles; drones that can travel hundreds of miles, and hover over the battlefield for hours.

These networks allow Generals, Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels to (micro) manage fights in ways they never could before, as they were on that hot day in the spring of 2008.

As I worked with my company commander to identify the exact location of the Taliban entourage, my platoon sergeant got my men ready. My section sergeant put our sharpshooter in position, and repositioned the squad automatic weapon. My team leaders checked weapons and ammunition. We were on edge; we were ready.

I, meanwhile, checked the coordinates Brigade had relayed. I looked up. I checked again. I rechecked.

My platoon sergeant called me on the radio. “Sir, I don’t think those grid coordinates are correct.”

“No, they're right,” I replied. “The UAV is just looking at a herd of sheep.”

And so they were. "Network-centric" warfare isn't a panacea for counter-insurgency, or war in general. It doesn’t cut through fog of war, so much as allow the fog to creep up to levels previously unimaginable. The US Army constantly praises its small unit leaders for their initiative, but it then develops technology so that Generals can call in air strikes and micromanage the fight.

I don’t mean to discount all UAVs, or all communication advances, that combine to make our new "network" technology. But very few technologies have made life easier for the companies on the ground, the level where counter-insurgencies are waged. I'm not anti-technology; I am anti-micromanagement.

(A note on Operational Security: Many of the details in this story could be fleshed out because I have to keep some names and capabilities secret. I hope everyone understands. Also, this dialogue is not accurate but an approximation.)

Apr 01

(Today's guest post is by Matty P. If you would like to guest write for us, please check out our guest post guidelines. We look forward to publishing reader posts on future Thursdays.

Quick note: The views of guest writers are not necessarily the view of Michael C or Eric C. For our take, please check out the comments below.)

I have chosen to forgo my scheduled post on why Top Gun is one of the top 30 Naval Avionics films of all time (just above Iron Eagle 9: Navy Planes and Stealth with Jamie Fox) to address a growing threat: Nazi Zombies. They are on the rise and threatening to rip away not just our way of life but our basic human rights. Mainly, the right of not having our flesh gnawed on by the soulless undead.

In recent years, the threat of zombie armageddon has been steadily encroaching on our culture. The best and brightest have saturated the media with warnings. In 1968, George Romero was the first to speak against the festering menace with his documentary The Night of the Living Dead, in which seven people in a small town in Pennsylvania attempt to fend off the first documented zombie attack.

Obviously, official government policy is to deny the event ever happened. Bureaucrats denote such occurrences as "fiction" and call those who investigate them “crazy,” yet more and more people have released their tales of zombie survival. From Sam Raimi’s classic Evil Dead series to the newly popular 28 Days Later, awareness of the undead pandemic is spreading. Even written account have reached publication. Max Brooks’ World War Z recounts the testimonials of several of those who were cunning, determined, or plain lucky enough to survive the Zombie apocalypse. 

Still, these tales pale in comparison to the greatest zombie threat to date. I speak of course, of the Nazi Zombie.

This is a game changer. While once we were faced only with creatures who may have once been friends or neighbors, now we face war criminals and men who were likely monsters before they became undead. It’s a development that can cause the novice to zombie combat additional fear and skepticism. Few things are more terrifying than a German SS bearing down after taking three rounds to the chest while chowing down on the remains of PVC Riley (poor bastard), it's dead lifeless eyes looking to you for the next meal that fails to satiate its undead hunger. 

One thing is clear, regardless of what type of zombie horde you face, the only way to ensure survival when they begin to overrun society is to be prepared. Always have a reserve supply of food and a fortified place to hold up until the walking dead pass by. Keep yourself fit so you can out pace the slow moving rotting corpses. Conserve your ammo and practice your aiming. Body shots are useless, take out the brain and you take down the zombie.

But these are just a few tips. Not enough to guarantee you’ll live to help me rebuild society. Mainly, you must do your research. It’s important to watch the accounts of other survivors and their friends who didn’t make it. What did those survivors do right? What did their friends do wrong? And check out the The Zombie Survival Guide or this wiki. Above all, stay alive, humanity needs you.